Аuthors: A. V. Melnik
Introduction. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC) is a recognized independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. One of the biochemical mechanisms of cardiotoxic action of excess homocysteine is the development of oxidative stress. Today, such drugs as bioflavonoids (genistein, quercetin, etc.) are increasingly used for cardioprotection which exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Along with this, it is shown that genistein also reveals hypohomocystinemic effect on acute methionine HHC. However, bioflavonoids’ ability to adjust the disruption of free radical processes in the myocardium of male and female rats under conditions of HHC remains unexplored.
The aim of the study was to explore the effect of bioflavonoids quercetin and genistein which induce hyperhomocysteinemia damage to cardiomyocytes and changes in the state of antioxidant systems of the heart in male and female rats.
Materials and methods. Experiments were performed on 80 white laboratory male and female rats (220–280 g). For hyperhomocysteinemia model of rats, D, L-homocysteine thiolactone (intragastral 100 mg/kg a day, 28 days,) in 1 % starch solution was used. Some animals in addition to homocysteine thiolactone was treated with genistein (2.5 mg / kg body weight i.g.) or quercetin (25 mg / kg body weight i.g.) for 28 days.
In myocardium, NADPH-oxidase activity, superoxide dismutase, content of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl groups was determined. In blood serum, content of homocysteine, aspartatе aminotransferase activity and creatine phosphokinase was evaluated. Statistical processing of the results was performed using the program Statistica SPSS 17.0.
Results and discussion. Applied pharmacotherapy prevented decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione deficit under the conditions of HHC in male and female rats, the mentioned action is more expressive under genistein. In addition, the introduction of bioflavonoids inhibits the growth of oxidized glutathione, activation of NADPH-oxidase and processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins in male and female rats, but the effectiveness of genistein was higher than of quercetin. Under these conditions, genistein showed more expressive, membrane-stabilizing effect on cardiomyocytes in males and females than quercetin.
Conclusion. It was established that under the conditions of HHC applying of genistein only constrains effectively the development of oxidative stress in male and female rats.
Keywords: hyperhomocysteinemia, oxidative stress, myocardium, genistein, quercetin, sex.