Аuthors: A. V. Pachevska, Ju. V. Philimonov
Recently a lot of new diagnostic technologies are implemented in all branches of medicine, which are based on the micromorphological picture of dried biological liquids.
Aim. To study the variation in shaping crystalline aggregates of children aged 7–16 years with non-removable orthodontic equipment.
Materials and methods. Drops of the biological liquid were applied on a skim object-plate placed horizontally. Volume of the drop was 0.2 mL. Diameter of the drop on object-plate was 5–7 mm. Average thickness – approximately 1 mm. At a temperature of 20–25 degrees and relative humidity of 65–70 % the samples were dried. The dried drop (facies) was examined under the microscope and photographed.
Results. As the results of quantitative research we can identify the following types of oral fluid system: facies that cover an area of salt crystals up to70–75 %, facies that cover an area of salt crystals up to 20–70 %, facies that cover an area of salt crystals up to 20 %. As a result of microscopy we have identified 3 groups of saliva structuring: in the central (salt area) of the drug there is indicated the only structure of crystals dendritic processes, which tend to merge with themselves. Peripheral zone is wide and free of crystal. Crystallization starts in the transition zone. In another group in the central area of the salt drug there are isolated single cruciform crystals with less fewer dendritic processes. Peripheral zone is narrowed, has radial cracks and multidirectional shallow cracks. The process of crystallization starts in the protein area (extended transition zone). In the third group the central zone of salt drug there are a lot of amorphous structures, single chips of crystals and dendritic formations. Peripheral (protein) zone is narrow, look like a strip with many randomly distributed fissures and crystal-like formations. Dried drop of saliva of children of 7–16 years is characterized by a clear picture of large crystalline structures which go from the center of a drop and merge forming so-called horsetails or ferns. Quantitative indicators of morphological characteristics of crystalline aggregates of mixed saliva: the length of the crystal to the point of branching, the angle of branching, the number of generations of branches of the 1st, 2nd, and others orders, crystal width, crystal length, number of microbranches on the length of the crystal. Quality indicators: uneven thickness of one figure, asymmetry of branches, availability of symmetric and asymmetric processes, the rods without branching with long microprocesses, asymmetry, cross-shaped crystals. Using of fixed orthodontic equipment led to disruption of saliva crystallization. The most movers were for a 6-month treatment of orthodontic appliances.
Conclusions. Crystallographic methods can serve as a sensitive indicator of the functional state not only of the oral cavity, but of the whole organism in general. Crystallography of the oral fluid can be seen as fairly simple, economical, non-invasive and informative way of testing the condition of the body as a whole and state of cavity of mouth.
Keywords: saliva, crystallization, dento-alveolar anomalies, non-removable orthodontic equipment.