In most industrialized countries with a high level of urbanization diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Every year about 9.4 million people die from cardiovascular diseases. One of the causes of cardiovascular disease is an amyloidosis. Its incidence in the population, according to recent data, is 1 in 50 thousand of people, there is a tendency to more frequent detection of cases.
The aim of the study is to analyze the literature to determine different proteins’ role in the etiopathogenesis of amyloidosis of the cardiovascular system.
Amyloid deposition in the heart may have different anatomical allocation, including atrial, ventricles, perivascular spaces such as heart valve leaflets, and in some cases – in the cardiac conductive system. Amyloidosis of the heart is established or by the help of positive cardiac biopsy with the presence of amyloid infiltration, or by an increase of left ventricular wall > 12 mm, in the case of arterial hypertension (AH) absence or absence of other potential causes of the genuine LV hypertrophy with a positive cardiac biopsy.
Among amyloid proteins, which affect a heart, there are such types: AL-amyloidosis (amyloid of light chains), family amyloidosis (F), senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA), isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA) and the secondary (AA) amyloidosis.
Recently amyloidosis of heart went out of the category of rare diseases; it has become possible thanks to the different methods of research, including the possibility of studying the heterogeneity of the protein composition of amyloid fibril formation. However, systemic amyloidosis and particularly amyloidosis of the heart continue to belong to diseases, which are diagnosed difficult, considering the non-specific symptoms of disease, a small suspicion among physicians with regard to amyloidosis and multiple organ destruction.
Keywords: amyloidosis, cardiovascular system, amyloid proteins, heart failure, atherosclerosis, biomineralization.
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