Authors: Bulich E.G., Muravov I.V.
The problem of chronic pathological conditions and chronic diseases (CD) in a paradoxical way combine both opposed and mutually exclusive points of view. The development of chronic pathological conditions is considered to be the greatest danger to the life of the population or protective reaction. The absence of the reliable epidemiological methods to assess CD significantly interferes with the description of the problem.
The suggested analysis allowed justifying the assessment method of development of chronic diseases based on the use of known epidemiological indicators. The proposed indicators allowed quantitatively evaluating the correlation between sub-populations "adapted" and "unadapted" among the population. The indicators could evaluate the ability of the population to separate the disease preserving the life span.
The assessment method was approved at one of the most mass illnesses CD – ischemic heart disease (IHD). We explained the protective influence of the development of chronic IHD in people of working age. That influence was not the passive "extension" of the pathological process but the active mechanism of danger resistance that favored reduction of mortality. Although the development of chronic pathological conditions become a biological process, but its implementation at various diseases may differ importantly.
Keywords:epidemiology, chronicpathologicalstates, morbidity, morbidityrate, mortality, protectiveeffect, pathogenesis, ischemicheartdisease.
Authors: Tishko T.T., Tishko D.N., Titar V.P. , Prykhodko O.O., Bumeister V.I.
We employed the combination of the digital holographic interference and electron microscopy methods to study 3D morphology of rats’ blood erythrocytes o. The rats drank water with high concentration of heavy metal salts for a month. The results showed considerable morphological changes of blood erythrocytes in animals from experimental group: the number of transformed and degenerative erythrocytes increased, the average diameter of normal erythrocytes decreased and shape transformations of normal erythrocytes regarding sphericity coefficients increased.
Key words: digital holographic interference microscopy, electron microscopy, red blood cell morphology, 3D imaging, sphericity coefficient, heavy metal salt, rat.
Authors: Ohienko M.M., Bumeister V.I.
In modern life trauma, along with cardiovascular and oncological diseases, is one of the three causes leading to mortality. Our aim was to study the reparative regeneration process inyoung animals (control group);in animals with stimulated severe degree of dehydration (experimental group) and general conditions to correct morphological changes of the injured tibiae caused by severe degree of dehydration (applying "SOLCOSERYL" drug).The experiment was conducted on young male rats aged 4 months, which were divided into 2 groups: control and experimental.The experimental group was subdivided into two subgroups: the rats with severe degree of dehydration (I) and the ratswhich underwent the corrective treatment of structural changes caused by severe degree of dehydration applying "SOLCOSERYL"drug (II). After 3 days there were changes in the cellular composition in the animals from the subgroup I. On the 15th day, severe hematoma were determined in the immature areas of granulation tissue. We observed that the area of fibroreticulate tissue increased, but the area of coarse-fibered bone tissue reduced by 15.48 % (p≤0.0001) compared with the control group. After 15 days in the rats which underwent correction of structural change occured a positive tendency in histostructure: coarse-fibered bone tissue area decreasedby 16.10 % (p ≤ 0.0001), and the plate – up to 14.33 % (p ≤ 0.0001) compared with animals with severe degree of dehydration. After 24 days the structure of theregenerateschanged dramatically in the animals with severe degree of dehydration. For example, the area of coarse-fibered bone tissue increased up to 8.05 % (p ≤ 0.0001) and lamellar bone reduced by 22.82% (p≤0.0001) comparing with the control group. After 24 days firbroreticulate tissue was formed in the animals which underwent corrective treatment.There was more lamellar tissue in the animals which underwent corrective treatment comparing with the animals which had water imbalance,by 24.75 % (p ≤ 0.0001). Accoding to the histological investigation, the results demonstrated that severe dehydration did not change the order of reparative osteogenesis stages, but delayedthe restoration of bones. Thus, the corrector had positive effect on the reparative osteogenesis. Applied "SOLCOSERYL"drug, as a corrector,eliminated negative dehydration and accelerated restructuring and maturation of bone structures.
Key words: general dehydration, cellular composition, correction, "SOLCOSERYL", reparative regeneration.
Authors: Romaniuk A.M., Moskalenko Yu.V., Shkandala A.Yu.
The researchpresents the results of the study of seminal gland tissue of 128 immature rats treated with salts of zinc, copper, iron, manganese, chromium and lead from drinking water for 60 days. The aim of the study was to investigate the accumulation of zinc, copper, lead, manganese, chromium and iron in the tissue of the testes during their alimentary intake and under conditions of L-carnitine correction. Using spectrophotometry in atomic absorption mode, it was found out that the level of zinc reduced and the content of other analyzed trace elements increased. Accumulation of copper, iron, manganese, chromium and lead in seminal gland tissue was mostly expressed in the period of 60 days; iron, lead and chromium showed the largest organ tropism. The low rate of HMC accumulation in the testes of rats of breast and suckling age periodscould be explained by the limited intake of xenobiotics via maternal milk.Loss of zinc by testis tissue was caused by antagonistic interactions between chemical elements that came into the body of rats in excessive quantities. Interaction of chemical elements at different levels could lead to secondary violations of chemical and structural homeostases of the organ causing further inhibition of its function.
The results of chemical analyses of testes of immature rats, obtained by SEM, indicatedthe dependence of accumulation of micro elements of heavy metals from the morphofunctional activity of the histological structure of the studied organ. Heavy metals mainly accumulated in the functionally active spermatogenic epithelium.
Key words: testes, immature rats, heavy metals, chemical composition, atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis.
Authors: Shevchenko О.A., Dorogan S.B., Kaniuka H.S., Gubar I.A.,Prunkevych О.G., Golovatenko M.К.
Introduction. After the Chernobyl accident radio-anxiety of the population remains one of the most acute psychosocial problems in Ukraine, especially in the regions where uranium is extracted and processed. Uranium raw material – basis of nuclear fuel for nuclear energy – has been processed in Zhovti Vody of Dnipropetrovsk region since 1950s. Zhovti Vody is a unique place. The city is surrounded with the uranium production facilities: the hydrometallurgical factory and the uranium waste tailing damp.
Purpose. Our aim was to estimate perceived health status of Zhovti Vody citizens (population category «В») and the employees of the industrial complex «Eastern Mining Processing Plant» (MPP), who work with radiation sources daily (categories «A» and «B»).
Materials and Methods. We checked the health status of average Zhovti Vody citizens (102) and industrial complex employees (104), who work with radiation sources daily. The samplings deferred only by the place of employment of respondents. The average age of respondents (M ± m) was 41.6 ± 0.9 years. The gender (р > 0.9) and age (р > 0.7) characteristics were similar for both groups. The applied research methods were developed and tested by the specialists of V. M. Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute (Saint Petersburg).
1. According to the integral estimation of the perceived discomfort condition: the employees complained less of pain, but citizens who did not work in the industrial complex complained more.
2. Mental health of the population corresponds to the low (by anxiety and frustration indices) and middle assessment levels (on the constriction and aggressiveness scales). However, the employees of the industrial complex showed the lower degree of symptom expression.
3. The majority of population (88.3 %) showed the low level of social frustration regardless to the place of employment.
4. The correlation between physical and mental health statuses (anxiety, constriction, psychological and social frustration) confirmed interaction between pain and psychological symptoms.
The employees of the industrial complex showed better estimation of perceived health status comparing with citizens, who work in other institutions. Thus, the employees of any industrial complexes normally express less radio-anxiety, because they work with radioactive sources daily.
Key words: radio-anxiety of the population, perceived health status, psychophysiological assessment, anxiety, frustration, aggression, rigidity.
Authors: Nishanbaev R.T., Takhirova R.N., Umarova M.S., Tashmetova B.R.
Introduction. The complicated pneumonia in children of early age remains serious problem for pediatrics, despite significant achievement in treatment and rehabilitation. Considerable progress was made recently in clinical and experimental membranology to understand pathogenesis of many diseases in children of early age, including pneumonia. Additional medical and rehabilitation measures were proposed.
The cellular membranes contain glycocalyx. It is the external surface of erythrocytes’ membranes functioning as antigenic complex of ABO blood system. Our aim was to study the condition and structure of erythrocyte’s glycocalyx in children with complicated pneumonia regarding their blood group using the ABO system.
Materials and methods. The children were divided into groups regarding their blood group. We analyzed the levels of hexoses and sialic acids in erythrocytes’ membranes of peripheral blood in children of early age with complicated pneumonia. Diagnosis of complicated out-of-hospital pneumonia was based on data of the anamnesis, objective examination, laboratory analyses and chest X-ray.
The blood samples were collected from the peripheral vein on empty stomach in the morning during acute phase of disease. We used heparin (at dose 300 IU per 1 ml of blood) as anticoagulant. Glycoproteins were released from erythrocyte membranes by hyposmotic hemolysis. Quantitative determination of sialic acids was made by the Svennerholm's method; hexoses were detected by the antronic method. Measurement was made regarding to the blood group and clinical signs of extra pulmonary complications of pneumonia (1–2 day of hospitalization and the discharge day from the hospital).
Statistical analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel. Study results were processed using variation statistics methods and the Student’s-test.
Discussion. The obtained results showed that certain therapeutic measures should be taken to stabilize glyxocalix of the erythrocytes’ membranes during complicated pneumonia in children of early age.
Key words:complicated pneumonia, children of early age, infants, erythrocyte’s membrane, glycocalix.
Authors: Loboda A.M. , Markevich V.E.
The article is devoted to the study a diagnostic value of early markers of CNS (neuron specific enolase (NSE)) and kidney injury (cystatin C) in neonates undergoing asphyxia.
The study involved 75 full-term neonates with kidney disturbance: 45 children undergone severe asphyxia, and 30 children with moderate asphyxia. Comparison group consisted of 20 healthy children. Serum concentration of NSE and cystatin C measured on 1–2nd, 7–8th and 25–30th days of life by ELISA.
A significant level of NSE (above 29.5 ng/ml) is the early confirmation of the diagnosis of asphyxia. NSE content, which is above 56.2 ng/ml (1–2th days of life), is critical to predict the renal dysfunction development.
Increased cystatin C level after birth is an early and universal feature of hypoxic damage of the kidneys, as its serum level increases rapidly and reliably even at moderate asphyxia. The degree of kidney damage, depending on the severity of the asphyxia can be determined by the serum cystatin C level from the end of the early neonatal period. Detection of high concentrations of neurospecific proteins in serum at the late neonatal period requires monitoring of serum cystatin C.
Key words: asphyxia, neuron specific enolase, cystatin C, kidney, newborn.
Authors: Chemych M.D., Malysh N.H.
Salmonellosis and shigellosis are widespread intestinal diseases that bring significant economic blow. Polyetiology, a variety of modes of transmission, universal susceptibility, lack of persistent post-infectious immunity are factors that hinder efficiency of undertaken measures to reduce morbidity.
We concluded a retrospective analysis of the incidence (2003–2012) to study the epidemic process of shigellosis and salmonellosis in Sumy region; and defined etiological structure. Besides, certain species of Salmonella were isolated from pathological material of animals and investigated. We employed the descriptive and analytical epidemiological research methods. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the application package «Statistics for Windows», version 8.0. The incidence rate, dynamics of morbidity trends, Spearman coefficient correlation, and the coefficient of reliability were determined with statistical significance (p < 0.05).
Nowadays there is a pronounced tendency to decrease the incidence of shigellosis and moderate growth trend incidence of salmonellosis in Sumy region. In the etiological structure of shigellosis and salmonellosis, S. sonnei (p < 0.05) and S. enteritidis (p < 0.05), are the most prevalent. Risk factors for shigellosis prevalence are contaminated drinking milk, dairy and cooked products. We point out strong to medium direct correlations between isolation frequency of samples, which do not meet sanitary-bacteriological standards, morbidity and the annual dynamics of shigellosis. The incidence of salmonellosis in the population corresponds to the epizootic situation. There is a significant direct correlation between the isolation frequency of S. typhimurium from pathological animal material and the pathogen from clinical material of patients. Neutralizing effect on food processing path should be the basis to prevent from shigellosis and salmonellosis nowadays. Considering importance of the housing conditions for animals in the epidemiology of salmonellosis, so preventive measures must be taken at the basic level of food processing chain; we should use high quality raw materials and meet technological transportation, storage and cooking requirements.
Key words shigellosis, salmonellosis, incidence rate, etiological structure, prevalence.
Authors: Volosovets T.N.
Introduction. Herpesvirus infection (HVI) is a common viral infections of man. There are people in all countries, in all climatic and geographical zones, with a variety of clinical manifestations that are sometimes very dangerous to human life. Lesions of periodontal herpesvirus is a complex process. It is carried out by direct viral infection and replication, or due to virus-induced changes in the immune system.
Purpose.Our aims were to determine the Herpesviridae family of viruses in samples of periodontal tissues and study immunological parameters in patients with catarrhal gingivitis (generalized periodontitis of initial and first degree), associated with persistent herpes virus infection.
Material and methods. Determination of the presence of pathogens in tissues taken from pathological focus was conducted by the own- technique. We took 87 samples of periodontal tissues removed from the core (I) group who had a history of herpes signs of infection (64 people) and a comparison group of patients (II), they had existing displays of herpesvirus infection (23 people), which was a complete dental health with removing roots (they are not subjectsof further orthopedic treatment).
We studied the local cellular and humoral immunity periodontal tissues analyzing content subpopulations of T lymphocytes and cytokines in seized samples of periodontal tissues .
Results. Determination of the presence of pathogens by PCR in tissues taken from the pathological center was used for early and accurate diagnosis and the general availability of herpesvirus infection in cell suspensions of periodontal tissue.
The proposed method can improve the diagnosis reliability and efficiency of viral lesions of periodontal tissues , and obtain information about the presence of a viral pathogen within 8 hours. However, using this method enables to reduce the amount of samples to 0.06 ml, and incubation duration to 8 hours. There are studies on the molecular level to enhance the reliability of diagnosis of infection. They are are connected with the assessment of the risk of destruction of bone of the alveolar process in inflammatory and dystrophic- inflammatory periodontal diseases; they define the role of viruses in immunogenetic determination of microorganism in the development and progression of the disease.
Conclusions. The herpes virus can multiply in the tissues and parodonta mucosa and gums, usually reaching greater concentration in tissues upper-gingival than under-gingival areas. They were found in biota samples of normal tissues parodonta .
That’s why, we assumed that viral and bacterial colonization not only ran, but also strengthened the parodontal tissue inflammation..
Key words: PCR, herpes infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein - Barr virus (EBV), periodontal tissues.
Authors: Pogorielov M.V., Gusak Ye.V., Babich I.M., Kalinkevich O.V., Kalinkevich A.N., Somokhvalov I.I., Danilchenko S.N.,Skliar A.M.
The most important function of enterosorbents is their ability to bind toxins both of exogenous and endogenous origin. Wide range of commercial sorbents applies in various intoxications, poisonings or infections, pathology of liver, pancreas or kidney with chronic renal failure. The toxic trace elements are determined among the most spread toxins. They get into the organism in different ways, including nutritional. Majority of the known sorbents exhibit high absorption properties for this type of toxicants, however development and research of new enterosorbents are relevant biomedical problem.
Chitosan – a biologically active heteropolysaccharide consisting of N-glucosamine and N-aceto-glucosamine obtained by deacetylation of chitin, one of the most common natural polymers. Chitosan high sorption activity observed in several studies: so the active centers in sorption processes are amino groups, which form complexes with trace elements’ ions. Furthermore, a certain contribution is OH group (particularly the C3-position.) Adsorption – chelation (ion substitution) – is also discussed as possible mechanisms for the formation of complexes, wherein the interaction depends on the type of solution composition, pH, and the ion types. When cleaning the environment from pollutants, it is important to have not only an effective sorbent, but the sorbent in a convenient form. Powders are hard to remove; films and gels are not applicable for all cases. The most convenient form for sorption, are obviously porous beads or granules. In this regard, the aim of our research was to study the sorption activity of chitosan-apatite complex and lyophilized chitosan against toxic trace elements.
Beads were obtained from a 2% solution of chitosan (200 kDa, 82 % deacetylation rates) by dropping the solution through a 2 mm diameter needle in a 5 % sodium hydroxide solution under continuous mixing. The beads were kept in the alkali solution overnight, permanently washed with water and freeze dried. Chitosan beads containing hydroxyapatite were prepared by adding a solution of chitosan in 1 M calcium chloride solution and 1 M solution of calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca/P ratio – 1.67). The beads were kept in a 5 % alkaline solution for 24 hours and then washed with water and freeze-dried.
To determine sorption activity of samples, we placed 1 gram of each sample in a 100 ml solution (pH – 6.0) containing 5 mg per liter of a trace elements – Mn+2, Cr+3, Fe+2, Cd+2, and Cu+2. The solution was shaken by automatic shaker throughout the experiment at 30 oscillations per minute. We used activated carbon for comparison series. The solution was filtered in each series in 30, 60, 360 and 720 minutes and the content of trace elements was measure in a liquid phase by atomic absorption.
It should be noted that for 12 h (720 min) the chitosan-apatite beads absorbed all trace elements almost completely (99–100 %), while the chitosan based absorbed cadmium and copper better exhibiting minimal affinity for iron, chromium and poorly absorbed manganese (Cd> Cu> Fe> Mn> Cr); activated carbon also absorbed cadmium and copper better, to a
lesser sorbs iron, manganese and did not absorb chromium (Cu> Cd> Fe > Mn).
When we used the chitosan-based beads as sorbents, it was difficult to consider the kinetics of absorption and the releasing of some elements in the solution after polymer restructuring. The chitosan apatite beads were preferably hold in contact with a cleaning medium for 12 h; at the same time during the first 30 minutes that sorbent absorbed about 90 % of copper, manganese, iron, cadmium and 50 % of chromium. Beads of chitosan during the first 30 min absorbed only 90 % of copper and more than 50 % of cadmium, manganese, and about 40 % of chromium.
Key words:sorbents, chitosan, chitosan/hydroxylapatit, heavy metals.
Introduction. The cardiac arrhythmia (СА) takes a leading place in the modern structure of cardiovascular disease in children. Most researchers divide children into the groups by age and gender, excluding the levels and rates of physical development. However, literature data and own results demonstrate various reserves of adaptation and mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis in children with normal (normodants– No), retarded (retardants – Re) and accelerated (accelerants – Ac) rates of physical development. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of sanatorium treatment(SТ) of adolescents with heart rhythm disturbances, depending on their level of physical development.
Materials and Methods. The study involved 329 healthy adolescents and 128 adolescents with СА. Distribution of study groups was performed in terms of "the length of the body." The weight and the length of body, the level of physical performance (PWC170), the level of maximum oxygen consumption (МОC), strain index (SI) of Baevsky, indicators of heart rate variability (HRV) – amplitude mode (AM) and standard deviation (SDNN) – were determined.
Results.Comparison of vegetative homeostasis and aerobic ensure of No, Re and Ac before and after SТ showed that the most susceptible to the effects of medical factors were Ac, the least – Re, and No took a middle position. As a result of ST the SI was decreased. The degree of SI reduction was greater in Ac, then in Ho and Re. Changes in vegetative regulation were the highest in Ac, middle in No and the lowest in Re. The degree of AM change was greater in Ac than in No and Re. As a result of the SТ was a significant increase of PWC170 and МОC in all treatment groups, exceptМОC increasing in Re. Improving aerobic capacity of the organism (in terms of PWC170 and МОC) was the highest in Ac and the smallest in Re.
Discussion. Thus, the physical development influenced the effectiveness of rehabilitation in the SТ. The study showed that the fundamental differences in the physiological mechanisms of Ac, No and Re were the basis for different types of adaptation and response to treatment. High efficiency of rehabilitation measures in accelerants was probably provided by higher initial voltage of homeostasis mechanisms: a high level of energy exchange, heat production and voltage of rhythm regulation systems. Compensatory reallocation of adaptation resources occurred: adaptability of vegetative cardiac rhythm regulation mechanisms increased on the background of significant drop in the quality of aerobic ensure.
Key words: sanatorium treatment, adolescents, physical development.
Authors: Vynnychenko O.I.
Introduction. There are limited data concerning food transportation through the intrathoracic stomach used for esophageal replacement after resection. Bilateral truncal vagotomy and partial sympathectomy make the stomach transplant act as an inert tube; although, food moves only by gravitation force there.
Purpose. After previous application of the basic physical and mathematical model of the intrathoracic stomach, I assumed that further assessment of the gastroplasty model width and diameter of pyloric canal should be performed.
Materials and methods. The gastric tube models with the three different diameters of 30 mm (prototype is narrow gastric tube); 60 mm (prototype – wide gastric tube) and 90 mm (prototype – the whole stomach) were produced and connected to the three variants of pyloric canal model (3.5 mm vs 7.0 mm vs 14.0 mm). I calculated the transportation time through physical models for 250 ml of water and 50 % glycerin. I analyzed either additional negative chest pressure and positive intraabdominal pressure had effect on the liquids emptying time.
Results. The obtained results showed thatthetimeperiods ofwater emptying for 90 mm gastric tube were 63.3 ± 2.0;15.0 ± 1.3 and 3.4 ± 1.0 seconds for 3.5 mm; 7.0 mm and 14 mm pyloric canal models respectively; the time periods of water emptying for60 mm gastric tube were 38.8 ± 1.1; 9.8 ± 0.8 and 2.4 ± 0.8 seconds for 3.5 mm; 7.0 mm and 14 mm pyloric canal models respectively; and the time periods of water emptying for30 mm gastric tube were 19.7 ± 2.1; 5.3 ± 1.9 and 1.3 ± 0.8 seconds for 3.5 mm; 7.0 mm and 14 mm pyloric canal models respectively. The term of glycerin transportation was significantly higher comparing with water transportation through the model (3.2–3.4 odd). Additional negative chest pressure and positive intraabdominal pressure had no effect on the liquids evacuation time.
Discussion: Emptying time equation for intrathoracic stomach model was calculated and compared with data obtained from physical model exploration. I assumed that the width stomach transplant defined the emptying time regardless fluid consistency. I emphasized on the necessity of wide gastric tube esophageal replacement and digital pyloric rupture at clinical setting.
Key words esophagogastroplasty, the modeling of intrathoracic stomach, stomach transplant width, emptying time equation.
Authors: Humenna K.Yu., Sydorchiuk L.P., Andriets O.A., Bodnariuk O.I.
Introduction. Late diagnosis and treatment of acute appendages inflammation in the puberty age girls are key causes of menstrual irregularities, recurrent exacerbations and frequent appearance of complications, chronic pelvic pain, possible ectopic pregnancy in future or infertility, endocrine and immunological disorders. The complex causes of tubes and ovarian inflammation in teenagers involves both specific (infectious) and non-specific factors, including genetic. Genetically caused dysregulation of the inflammatory response at the place of damage may be the result of point mutations in genes of the interleukins (IL) family. Clinical interest shows the mutation at 511 position of the IL-1β gene promoter (located at chromosome locus 2q14 (q13-21).
Our aim wasto analyze the association of 511C/T polymorphism of IL-1β gene (id.:rs16944) with salpingoophoritis in early (12–14 years) and late (15–18 years) adolescence.
Materials and Methods. 88 screened patients with salpingoophoritis: with specific (59.1%) and with non-specific appendages inflammation (40.9%);early puberty age (34.1%; 12–14 years old), late puberty age (65.9%, 15–18 years old), and 31 healthy persons with respective age participated in prospective study. Alleles of polymorphic locus were studied by polymerase chain reaction based method. Alleles' discrimination of IL-1β gene was performed by restriction endonuclease Aval ("Fermentas", Lithuania). Statistical processing was performed with Statistica® 7.0 (StatSoft Inc., USA) software. The differences were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Results. Among patients with nonspecific salpingoophoritis the T-allele frequency dominates the CC-genotype by 4.99 times. In adolescent girls 15–18 years old with salpingoophoritis prevail mutant T-allele of IL-1β gene (id.:rs16944) over the C- allele in the ratio of 72:44 (p = 0.041); at the age of 12–14 years the ratio was 38:22 (p > 0.05). Favorable CC-genotype met in every fifth teen with salpingoophoritis (20.5 %) and almost in every second (41.9 %) of the control group. The CT-genotype was recorded in almost every third girl (34.7 % in the study group, 38.7% – among healthy subjects). "Unfavourable" TT- genotype was present in almost half of the individuals of the study group (45.4 %) and only one in five healthy adolescents (19.4 %). Specific salpingoophoritis met by 2.22 times more often in CC-genotype carriers girls aged 15–18 years than in those of 12–14 years (c2= 5.88, p = 0.049). Nonspecific salpingoophoritis opposite occurred less frequently by 3.15 times in CC-genotype carriers aged 15–18 years than in adolescents with the same genotype of 12–14 years (c2= 7.22, p = 0.031).
The presence of T allele or TT genotype of IL-1β gene increases the predisposition risk for tub-ovarian inflammation, regardless of their specificity, in girls of pubertal age (especially 15–18 years old) by 1.54–2.58 times [OR = 2.34–4.17, OR 95 % CI = 1.07–12.6 p ≤ 0.032–0.002]. C-allele and CC genotype play a protective role and show the lowest probability of appendages inflammation, especially nonspecific salpingoophoritis [OR = 0.28–0.43, p ≤ 0.022–0.001].
Conclusion: T-allele of IL-1β gene C-511T polymorphism associate with tub-ovarian inflammation in the puberty age girls.
Key words: salpingoophoritis, inflammation, adolescents, IL-1β gene 511C/T.
Authors: Chumak Yu.Yu
Introduction. Polymorbidity is a burning issue of modern medicine. It is presented as a combination of bronchial asthma (BA) with chronic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The determining pathogenetic factor for both diseases is inflammation, which is implemented with many cells and mediators. One of these mediators is products of arachidonic acid metabolism – thromboxane, which biological role is to strengthen the platelet aggregation. Activation of platelet adhesion and aggregation promotes microrheological violations.
Ouraimwas to examine the contents of thromboxane В2 (TхВ2) and the state of platelet aggregation in patients with a combination of BA and NASH.
Material and methods. We examined 68 patients (the mean age (34.5 ± 3.2) years) with moderately severe BA. In 35 patients with ВА diagnosed NASH. The control group consisted of 29 apparently healthy persons in the same age range.
Results and discussion. TxB2 content in the blood serum of patients with BA was (1403.7 ± 516.2) pg/ml and 6 times (p <0.001) higher than its value in healthy. In BA patients with NASH the concentration was TxB2 (3263.7 ± 347.3) pg/ml, which was higher than in healthy (233.6 ± 37.4) pg/ml and was almost 13.4(P < 0.001) and 1.9 times (p <0.01) higher than that in BA without NASH. TxB2 concentration in the urine of patients in both groups during the exacerbation of BA did not differ significantly and amounted respectively (426.7 ± 16.8) pg/ml and (407.9 ± 16.8) pg/ml; in healthy individuals – (86.9 ± 5.2) pg /ml. Thus, in patients with a combination of BA and NASH was dramatic increase in TxB2 compared with patients with BA without NASH that would foster mutual burdening syndrome and require more therapeutic efforts.
Conclusions:Patients with BA and BA combined with NASH had the increase in the concentration of TxВ2 as increasing its excretion in the urine, compared with healthy individuals. TxB2 content in patients with a combination of BA and NASH was 3.0 times higher than that in patients with BA without NASH.In patients with BA combined with NASH was an increase in platelet aggregation; in patients with acute exacerbation BA indicators platelet aggregation were multidirectional.
Further research will focus on the definition of directions for rational TxB2 content correction and influence of conventional therapy on patients with moderately severe BA combined with NASH.
Key words: bronchial asthma, non-alcoholic steatogepatitis, tromboxan B2.
MurdochJR, Lloyd CM. Chronicinflammationandasthma. Mutat. Res. 2010;690:24–39.doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.09.005
Authors: Parkhomenko O.M.,Dosenko V.Ye., Ataman O.V., Garbuzova V.Yu.
Introduction. Vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamylcarboxylase (GGCX) is the integral transmembrane protein, which catalyzes the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamic acid to γ-carboxyglutamic acid molecules in the vitamin K-dependent proteins that are synthesized in the liver (clotting factors II, VII, IX, X, protein S, C, and Z), and in other tissues (osteocalcin, protein S, Gas6 and four transmembrane proteins: PRGP1, PRGP2, TmG3, and TmG4). Taking into account importance of coagulant status in the development of coronary disorders, polymorphism of GGCX gene may be associated with them. The data in literature concerning these issues are limited and inconsistent, and absent for Slavic populations.
Purpose. Our aim was to establish the frequency of allelic variants of the GGCX gene for Arg325Gln polymorphism in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), who has normal and high blood pressure.
Materials and Methods. We used venous blood of 118 patients with ACS (22 % women and 78 % men) aged 40 to 73 years (mean age 55.9 ± 0.89 years) who were hospitalized in the cardiology department of Sumy City Clinical Hospital № 1. The control group consisted of 234 patients. Definition of Arg325Gln polymorphism (rs699664) of GGCX gene was performed using PCR with the following restriction fragment length analysis of the allocation of them by electrophoresis in agarose gel. Restriction endonuclease XmnI was used for restriction analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the software package SPSS-17. Thus the significance of differences was determined by the χ2-criterion. The value of P < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results. Using the χ2-Pearson criterion did not reveal association between the Arg325Gln polymorphism of GGCX gene and the development of ACS. Distribution of different types of genotype between patients with ACS and healthy patients did not differ statistically significantly. However, using logistic regression led to the conclusion of the association of polymorphism of the 8th exon of the GGCX gene with acute coronary syndrome. In carriers of minor allele (Gln/Gln) ACS risk twice that of homozygotes for the major allele (Arg/Arg).
The obtained data on the performance of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), pulse (PBP) and average (ABP) blood pressure in patients in the control group and patients with ACS with different genotypes for the polymorphism Arg325G in GGCX gene indicated that all four types of BP did not differ in carriers of different genotypes inside the control group and in patients with ACS. A comparison between the groups
revealed that for the studied polymorphism in members of Arg/Gln and Arg/Arg genotype and DBP and ABP values were significantly higher in patients with ACS than in control.
A somewhat different pattern was revealed when the analysis was conducted among females. Women with ACS homozygotes for the minor allele (Gln/Gln), only DBP; in homozygotes for the major allele (Arg/Arg) DBP and ABP, while heterozygotes (Arg/Gln) and SAT were also higher when compared with almost healthy individuals. As for men, the effect of blood pressure on the development of ACS was insufficient. SBP value in the comparison group did not significantly differ among carriers of different genotypes. DBP was higher in patients with genotype Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln, and PAT – with Arg/Arg, and ABP – with Gln/Gln, suffering from ACS.
Among persons with high blood pressure significant difference in the ratio of genotypes (Arg/Arg, Arg/Gln, Gln/Gln) existed between main and control groups. In the group with ACS, it accounted for 20.8, 56.9, 22.2 %, and in control – 38.4, 49.3, 12.3% (P = 0.045). Thus, among the people with high blood pressure with genotype Gln/Gln, risk of ACS development was greater. Logistic regression confirmed the conclusion: the minor allele homozygotes had risk of the ACS 3.3 times greater than that of homozygotes for the major allele.
Conclusion: In homozygotes for the minor allele (Gln/Gln), the risk of ACS was twice higher than in homozygotes for the major allele (Arg/Arg).
Among representatives of Arg/Gln and Arg/Arg genotype, DBP and ABP parameters were significantly higher in patients with ACS than in control.
Among people with high blood pressure with genotype Gln/Gln, risk of development of ACS was 3.3 times higher than that of homozygotes for the major allele (Arg/Arg).
Key words: allelic polymorphism, blood pressure, acute coronary syndrome, γ-glutamylcarboxylase.
Authors: Sukhodub L.F., Sukhodub L.B.
The short overview describes some natural polysaccharide chitosan (CS) applications in practical medicine, in particular tissue engineering. History of chitosan discovery, its synthesis, physicochemical and spectral (IR) data are presented. We described some CS-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds and more complicated systems based on two biopolymers: CS and sodium alginate (ALG), which wereobtained in the Bionanocomposite laboratory of Sumy State University (Sumy, Ukraine). On the one hand, these polymers are the most perspective because they have bacteriostatic properties for a vast number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; high biocompatibility towards the connective tissue; low toxicity; an ability to improve regenerative processes during wounds healing; and degradation ability with the creation of chemotaxic activity towards fibroblasts and osteoblasts. On the other hand, formation of nanosized (25–75 nm) calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHA) particles in the polymer scaffold approaches the derived material to the biogenic bone tissue, which can provide its more effective implantation. Also, an accent was made on antibacterial CS properties, including the complexes with metal ions, biopolymer systems for control drug delivery with a prolong action. Modern direction in chitosan studies – electroformation of chitosan fiber (“Nanospider” technology) is also discussed.
Key words: chitosan, tissue engineering, scaffolds, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposites, coatings.
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Authors: Holubnycha V.M., Chemych M.D.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of the opportunistic pathogens isolation from the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of the patients with acute respiratory viral infection. In addition, our task was to examine the factors that could realize microbes’ pathogenic potential and their influence on clinical manifestation.
Clinical and laboratory examination of 42 patients with acute respiratory viral infection was conducted. The investigation of the micro-ecological violations character was conducted using bacteriological and immunological study of nasal swabs from patients with acute respiratory viral infection. Research of the anti-lysozyme and anti-interferon activity was carried out according to the method of deferred antagonism using commercial preparations of lysozyme and human leukocyte interferon. Adhesive potential of the microbes was conducted using of the O+/- human blood group. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by determination of the relative error values, Student coefficient, and Pearson correlation coefficient.
There were isolated and identified 207 strains of bacteria and fungi. Among microorganisms isolated from the respiratory tract the proportion of opportunistic pathogens was 63.0 %. Staphylococci (73.4%) were isolated most often, and the level of the respiratory tract contamination by these pathogens in patients with complicated and uncomplicated course was similar. Determination of persistent factors showed the depending of the clinical course on the staphylococci anti-lysozyme and anti-interferon activity level.
Staphylococci are the dominant members of the normal microflora in patients with acute respiratory viral infection. Presence of the anti-lysozyme and anti-interferon activity in the microorganisms has influence on the clinical features of viral infections in adults.
Key words: viral infection, anti-lysozyme, anti-interferon activity, staphylococci, complicated course.
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Authors: Shatov D.V., Pikalyuk V.S., Shalanin V.V., Shymkus T.S.
Introduction and purpose. The cerebrospinal fluid contains many biologically active substances, which have a broad influence on different points of application in the organism. We performed the research of the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the rats’ lungs (in the connection with the studies, provided in our department and devoted to influence of xenogenic cerebrospinal fluid (XCSF) on the organism of rats).
Materials and methods. The investigation was performed on 84 Wistar rats of both sexes, which were divided into the experimental and control groups. The experiment was performed on impuberal (group 1), puberal (group 2) and aged rats (group 3). The duration of the experiment was 7 (for the groups 1 and 2), 30 (for all groups) and 90 days (for the groups 2 and 3). The rats of the experimental group got XCSF at the dose 0.002 ml/g three times with the interval of 2 days (for 7-day experiment) or ten times (for 30- and 90-day experiments). The control group received 0.9 % NaCl using the same dosage schedule. After decapitation (made under the general anesthesia) the lungs of the rats were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde. The histological specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and with van Gieson's stain. The microscopy was performed using the light microscope Olympus CX-41, the morphometry was performed using the program «DP Soft». During the investigation we counted the relative amount of the areas with normal parenchyma, emphysema, dystelectasises, haemorrhages; we also studied the collagen fibers.
Discussion. The triple introduction of XCSF to the animals of the group 1 caused growth of the relative amount of normal parenchyma by 14.35 % (р < 0.001) at the expense of decrease of relative amount of emphysematous areas by 15.95 % (р < 0.001). For group 2 the triple introduction caused less evident changes in comparison with the group 1: emphysematous areas decreased by 13.73 % (р < 0.001) at the expense of increase of the relative amount of the areas with normal parenchyma by 5.07 % (р < 0.01) and dystelectatic areas by 9.23 % (р < 0.001). During the 30-day experiment at the rats of the groups 2 and 3 the areas of normal parenchyma decreased by 8.85 % (р < 0.001) and 12.22 % (р < 0.001) respectively, while the amount of the emphysematous areas increased by 10.45 % (р < 0.001) in the group 2 and by 9.71 (р < 0.001) in the group 3. On 90th day we pointed out the growth of the relative amount of the normal parenchyma by 20.93 % (р < 0.001) due to the decrease of the relative amount of the emphysematous areas by 9.35 % (р < 0.001) and of the dystelectatic areas by 11.59 % (р < 0.001) in the group 2. In the group 3 the same, but less evident changes were found: the amount of the normal parenchyma increased by 6.85 % (р < 0.01), while emphysematous areas decreased by 5.56 % (р < 0.05) and dystelectatic areas decreased by 1.23 % (р < 0.01). Under the picrofuchsin staining we noticed the decrease of collagen’s content at the animals, who had received XCSF.
Key words: cerebrospinal fluid, ontogenesis, histological structure, parenchyma of lungs, collagen.
Authors: Romaniuk A.M., Lуndіn M.S., Moskalenko R.A., Zolotarova A.V.
The problem of breast cancer is being studied for a long time. Questions of reducing morbidity and mortality remain unresolved due to the lack of effective ways of primary prevention. As the etiological factors of breast cancer describe a huge number of reasons, including environmental factors. Some chemical substances in the environment show the estrogen-like activity in the study of biological systems. Unfortunately, relatively few researches were devoted to studying the influence of chemicals on the possibility of carcinogenesis, initiation and progression of breast cancer. We do not know how they affect the expression of important prognostic receptors. The purpose of the study was to examine the expression of receptors estrogen, progesterone and еpidermal growth factor in the tissue of malignant breast tumors under the of trace elements influence on the body.
We determined the morbidity of breast cancer in Sumy region by the histological studies in women for the period from 2009 to 2013. The breast tumor tissue for the immunohistochemical study was divided into two groups. The group 1 (the breast cancer tissue of women who lived in environmentally contaminated region) included 26 cases; the group 2 (the breast cancer tissue of women who lived in the environmentally clean areas) – 17 cases. Immunohistochemical reaction occurred in two stages using rabbit antibodies. Evaluation of the expression of ER and PR was performed by the method DCAllred. Evaluation of HER-2/neu expression was performed according to the recommendations of American Pathologists Consensus and the Office of the Food and Drug USA.
The results of the study confirmed that the morbidity of breast cancer in environmentally contaminated regions almost twice higher than the environmentally clean areas of Sumy region. In addition, we found the increase in expression of epidermal growth factor and the reduction in expression of steroid hormones in environmentally contaminated region. Consequently, іt proved the negative effect of trace elements on the course of breast cancer.
Key words: morbidity, tumor, expression, receptors, metals, immunohistochemistry, trace elements.
Authors: Bushueva O.Yu., Stetskaya T.A., Vyalykh E.K., Ivanov V.P., Polonikov A.V.
Introduction. The renin-angiotensin system is a major regulator of blood pressure. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) plays a key role in blood pressure control, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disease. Polymorphisms within the AGTR1 gene have been found to be associated with the risk cerebral stroke (CS) in some populations. However, the exact role of this gene polymorphism in genetic predisposition to cerebrovascular disease is unclear.
Purpose. The aim of thisstudy was to investigate the association of polymorphism A1166C (rs5186) of AGTR1 gene with the risk of cerebral stroke in hypertensive patients of Central Russia.
Materials and methods. The patients with CS and healthy controls were recruited at Kursk hospitals during periods 2007 and 2010, and also between 2012 and 2013. We studied DNA samples obtained from 830 subjects, including 454 CS patients and 276 sex- and age-matched healthy controls with normal blood pressure level. The diagnosis of CS in all cases was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging investigation. The polymorphism A1166C of AGTR1 genewas genotyped by TaqMan allele discrimination assay.
Results and discussion. Comparative analysis showed a difference in allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphism A1166C of AGTR1 genebetween the case and control groups. The study suggests that the AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to CS in population from Central Russian region. Analysis stratified by a gender did not reveal the associations of the AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism with the CS risk. Our results are in agreement with the studies performed in other Russian and African Americans populations regarding the polymorphismA1166C of the AGTR1 gene. It is not a susceptibility gene for cerebral stroke.
Key words: cerebral stroke, genetic predisposition, angiotensinogen gene, single nucleotide polymorphism, sexual dimorphism.
Authors: Kashchenko S.A., Erokhina V.V.
The structure of the parathyroid glands actively responds to the action of various exogenous factors, but information about morphological features of the structure of the organ during immune status changing is limited.The objective of the work was to study features of electron-microscopic structure of the rat parathyroid glands under immunosuppression caused by the administration of cyclophosphamide.
The study was carried out on 24 male rats of reproductive age with initial body weight 180 ± 10 g. Maintenance and care of animals conducted in accordance with the norms of bioethics. The animals received an intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 30th day after the given injection. We studied the ultrastructure of the rats’ parathyroid glands in norm as well as after immunosuppression.
The parenchyma of the parathyroid glands of intact animals consisted of two types of cells: chief cells and oxyphil cells. The ultrastructure of parathyroid chief cells and the mode of secretion were typical to other polypeptide-secreting endocrine cells. Those features correlated with the cells functional activity. The polyhedral, slightly eosinophilic chief cells were more numerous and formed irregular, anastomosing cords supported by delicate connective tissue. Oxyphils, which appeared after the first decade of life, were larger, more acidophilic cells that were irregularly distributed and occurred singly or in clumps. Using electron microscopy we detected that oxyphils were packed with mitochondria but, unlike chief cells, they lacked secretory vesicles; they are thought to be nonsecretory. Fat cells were also found in the parenchyma.The introduction of cyclophosphamide into the rat’s organism at high doses caused certain changes in the ultrastructure of the organ. We observed polymorphism of cell nuclei; reduction in the diameter of the vessels of the microcirculation; reduction in the number of secretory granules; increase in the number of lipid and colloid droplets in the cell cytoplasm on 3rd day. We noticed tendency to normalization of morphological structure of the organ after the administration of cyclophosphamide on the 30th day.
Key words: parathyroid gland, rats, ultrastructure, parathyroid cell, cyclophosphamide.
Authors: Lychko V.S., Gelih V.V.
The aim of the study was to improve the assessment of the dynamics of motor and cognitive deficits in patients with Parkinson's syndrome within 6 months on a background of an optimal antiparkinsonian therapy. We employed such methods as clinical neurological examination with a quantitative assessment of motor, cognitive, affective and psychotic disorders; analysis of medical records, and statistical analysis. The optimal antiparkinsonian therapy showed variation in the rate of disease progression, while about a quarter of the patients manifested rapid rate of progression of motor disorders. The deterioration of cognitive function was observed in 25 % of patients and in 12 % of patients with mild cognitive impairment during 6 months of developing dementia. Neurodynamic, regulatory and visual-spatial cognitive functions were affected most by negative dynamic in patients with Parkinson's syndrome. The antiparkinsonian therapy in 29.4 % of patients provoked psychotic violations, more often in patients with more severe visual-spatial and regulatory cognitive disabilities. We recommend using the test that had been involved in our work in order to improve the assessment of the dynamics in patients with Parkinson's syndrome. The highest rate of progression of motor function was marked in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to the relationship between cognitive and mental disorders. The qualitative feature of patients with severe cognitive impairment was predominant growth of motor disorders in axial sections.
Key words: cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, cyclodol, dementia, mental disorders.
Authors: Volosovets T.N.
Introduction. Lesions of periodontal herpesvirus is a complex process and is carried out by direct viral infection and replication, or due to virus-induced changes in the immune system. The prevalence of dystrophic and inflammatory lesions parodonta in the population; the complexity in the implementation of prevention and treatment of disease, and the ambiguity in the interpretation of the basic pathogenetic mechanisms (interrelated inflammatory, immune and metabolic) makes this issue extremely important in medicine.
Our aim was to detect viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection.
Material and methods. PCR and ELISA was performed detection and identification of viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection. I examined 290 patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease (catarrhal gingivitis, generalized periodontitis (CP) and the initial and degree) and, depending on the presence or absence of persistent HVI divided them into groups.
Within the study was conducted immunological study of 170 patients with pathology of periodontal tissues infected by viruses of the family Herpesviridae (Experimental (I) group).
Results. As a result of the survey it was found that 170 (52.79 %) patients had relatively persistent HVI of virus and made D (I) group. 42.21% of patients had persistent HVI available and made the comparison group (II).
Key words: salpingoophoritis, inflammation, adolescents, IL-1β gene 511C/T.
Authors: Khrystychenko M.A.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of buspirone hydrochloride on QT interval dispersion (ΔQT) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) of ischemic etiology with anxiety and depressive disorders (ADD).
142 patients (85 males, 57 females; mean age 66.4 ± 10.5) NYHA II-IV were randomized into the study. All patients were prescribed buspirone hydrochloride 10 mg t.i.d. due to anxiety and depressive disorders. All patients had II-III functional classes of angina; 86 of them (60.6 %) had history of myocardial infarction. Randomized patients received standard CHF and coronary heart disease therapy. Informed consents were signed before the study initiation. Exclusion criteria were history of mental disorders, significant impairment of cognitive functions, alcohol/drug abuse, other psychoactive drug intake, and severe concomitant pathology.
According to the results of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Questionnaire and Spielberger Anxiety Scale all patients were divided into two groups: the 1st with ADD, the 2nd – without them.
Initially and in 3 months of buspirone hydrochloride intake rest ECG was recorded in 12 standard leads, 50 mm/s and QT (ΔQT) and QTc (ΔQTс) dispersions were calculated by the standard technique (DQT = QTmax – QТmin, ΔQTc = QTc max – QTc min).
Initially mean ΔQT and ΔQTc for patients of the group 1 were 58.5 ± 11.0 ms and 57.8 ± 10.4 ms, respectively, 32.0 ± 9.7 and 31.2 ± 8.6 ms for the group 2. At re-examination ΔQT had no statistically significant differences in comparison with initial data and between groups (462.3±74.1 msand 454.0 ±66.2 msforthe groups 1 and 2, respectively) (p > 0.05).
Buspirone hydrochloride treatment did not lead to increase of dispersion of ventricular repolarization in the patients with ischemic CHF.
Key words: anxiety-depressive disorders, chronic heart failure, dispersion of ventricular repolarization, buspirone hydrochloride.
Authors: Ibrahim Alwan Kadhim Al-Ashour
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the condition of irreversible necrosis of the heart muscle that is a result of prolonged ischemia. After World War II coronary heart disease (CHD) assumed epidemic proportions in western countries; nowadays, myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Thus this study is conducted to establish a data base for the factors contributing the incidence of MI in Al-Najaf city.
The aim was to assess the myocardial infarction risk factors and to find out the differences between the patient and control groups regarding their age, BMI, B. sugar, smoking, gender, and biochemical parameters.
Materials and methods. A case-control study was carried out in Al-Najaf Health Directorate; Al-Sadder Medical City, and Al-Hakeem General Hospitals from December 20, 2012 to April 1, 2013. A non-probability (purposive sample) of 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction was selected as the patient group, and 50 healthy adults composed the control group. The data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, which consisted of two parts: (1) socio-demographic data form that contained 5 items; (2) anthropometric and laboratory tests form that contained 5 items. The data were described statistically and analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures.
Results. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between the patient and control groups regarding their age, BMI, blood sugar; smoking, gender, cholesterol; triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein. Exception was the family history for the study samples; the results showed that there was a non-significant difference between the patient and control groups.
Conclusion and recommendations. Age and gender of patients are the common non-modifiable risk factors. While weight, blood sugar, smoking, lipid profile of patients are the common modifiable risk factors. The researchers recommend that further studies should involve more patients at the national level, which may make a massive change in health care services provided in order to decrease the effect of modifiable risk factors. Education programs for both health care members and community individuals should focus on decreasing the incidence of MI by reducing its modifiable risk factors.
Key words: ssessment, risk factors, myocardial infarction.
Authors: Romaniuk A.M., Moskalenko Yu.V.
The article presentsresults of the study of seminal gland tissue of 128 male rats of neonatal, lactation, infantile and juvenile age periods. Our aim was to investigate the morphological features of the formation of immature testicular endocrine system of rats in early postnatal ontogenesis under the influence of salts of heavy metals (HMS), and in terms of correction with L-carnitine.
The animals were divided into two groups: the control and experimental. The controls involved: a subgroup 1 – intact rats treated with distilled water; and a subgroup 2 – animals treated with L-carnitine in the form of syrup enterally at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The experimental group composed of: a subgroup 3 – rats exposed to НМS; and a subgroup 4 – animals affected by НМS with correction of L-carnitine. The experimental group got drinking water with the combined solution containing 1 mg/l of salts Cr (VI), 1 mg/l of salts Pb (II), 1 mg/l of salt Mn (II), 5 mg/l of salts Zn (II), 1 mg/l of salts Cu (II) and 10 mg/l of salts Fe (III). The rats of the subgroups, which underwent correction, got drinking water with a combination of heavy metal salts and L-carnitine enterally using a probe 1 time a day at a dose of 50 mg/l. Each group of animals consisted of 8 rats. The animals were weighed and scarified on the 5th, 15th, 30th and 60th day by decapitation under ether anesthesia. Obtained testis tissue was studied using histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric methods.
It was found out that in the early postnatal ontogenesis in the testes of the controls occurred maturation and growth of functionally active Leydig cells, reduction in number of gland cells of low activity; and formation of cell clusters as islands and strands. Under influence of salts of heavy metals amount of functionally active Leydig cells increased, the differentiation of endocrine component speeded up. Correcting the influence of heavy metal salts with L-carnitine, we noticed that morphofunctional activity of gland cells compared with controls slightly increased, but remained lower than in rats which were exposed to HMS. During activation of Leydig cells, we observed intratubular inhibition of spermatogenic epithelium maturation. Morphofunctional activity of endocrine cells of the testes under the influence of heavy metals can be explained by different mechanisms: activation of cytochrome P450, functioning of testosterone in the body's stress responses and activation of Leydig cells by the mechanism of negative feedback with structural abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis. Increasing the morphofunctional activity of endocrine component of the testes under the influence of threshold concentrations of heavy metals can lead
to disruption of behavioral responses toward increasing aggressiveness of individuals, as evidenced by the literature. There is high crime rate in polluted regions of Ukraine, because there are excessive rate of heavy metal compounds. We can assume that ecological and biological factors may be important in the structure of the risks of crime.
Key words: testis, immature rat, Leydig cells, salts of heavy metals, early postnatal ontogenesis.
Authors: Pereviazkina M.V.
The interactions are observed between the cardiovascular and kidney continuum. Nephroangiosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular pathology is one of the main causes of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality in patients with terminal CRI, whereby the cardiovascular mortality in patients dialyzed continuously is several times higher than in general population. Some data suggest that the interaction between the cardiovascular and kidney continuum can be already observed at early stages of HTN. Therefore, an early marker for renal impairment, in particular microalbuminuria, is at present considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor.
The objective of this study was to investigate the microalbuminuria level and endothelial functionin patients with stage II hypertension.
182 patients with stage II hypertension (HTN) were examined. 40 patients with stage II HTN with no sign of other cardiovascular and renal diseases were studied as the control group. The key factor for selection was the absence of MAU in this group ofpatients.
The cardiac and hemodynamics status, the left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed using the ULTIMA Pro-30 scanner. The renal ultrasound examination was carried out, albumin excretion in urine (MAU, mg/24 h) was determined by the immunoturbidimetric test using the Micral-Test II test kit (Roche Diagnostics GMBH, Germany), the levels of endothelin-I and NO were determined.
In patients with stage II hypertension in whom microalbuminuria was detected, the discrepancy between the indicators of the left ventricular systolic function as compared with the group of patients in whom albumin excretion was not been observed. The tendency toward deterioration is observed in the indicators showing the left ventricular diastolic function depending on the presence of microalbuminuria. During the study of systemic hemodynamics according to the arterial hypertension stage (as the disease progressed) and the presence of albumin excretion, there was observed a decrease in the indicators, such as systolic discharge, cardiac output, cardiac index and an increase in total peripheral vascular resistance what resulted in increase in workload on the left ventricle myocardium and decrease in its capacity. The obtained data demonstrate the need to determine the albumin level in patients with hypertension in order to slow down the progression of hypertensive nephropathy.
Key words: hypertensive illness, mikroal'buminuriya, early diagnostics, hemodynamics.