Introduction. The cardiac arrhythmia (СА) takes a leading place in the modern structure of cardiovascular disease in children. Most researchers divide children into the groups by age and gender, excluding the levels and rates of physical development. However, literature data and own results demonstrate various reserves of adaptation and mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis in children with normal (normodants– No), retarded (retardants – Re) and accelerated (accelerants – Ac) rates of physical development. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of sanatorium treatment(SТ) of adolescents with heart rhythm disturbances, depending on their level of physical development.
Materials and Methods. The study involved 329 healthy adolescents and 128 adolescents with СА. Distribution of study groups was performed in terms of "the length of the body." The weight and the length of body, the level of physical performance (PWC170), the level of maximum oxygen consumption (МОC), strain index (SI) of Baevsky, indicators of heart rate variability (HRV) – amplitude mode (AM) and standard deviation (SDNN) – were determined.
Results.Comparison of vegetative homeostasis and aerobic ensure of No, Re and Ac before and after SТ showed that the most susceptible to the effects of medical factors were Ac, the least – Re, and No took a middle position. As a result of ST the SI was decreased. The degree of SI reduction was greater in Ac, then in Ho and Re. Changes in vegetative regulation were the highest in Ac, middle in No and the lowest in Re. The degree of AM change was greater in Ac than in No and Re. As a result of the SТ was a significant increase of PWC170 and МОC in all treatment groups, exceptМОC increasing in Re. Improving aerobic capacity of the organism (in terms of PWC170 and МОC) was the highest in Ac and the smallest in Re.
Discussion. Thus, the physical development influenced the effectiveness of rehabilitation in the SТ. The study showed that the fundamental differences in the physiological mechanisms of Ac, No and Re were the basis for different types of adaptation and response to treatment. High efficiency of rehabilitation measures in accelerants was probably provided by higher initial voltage of homeostasis mechanisms: a high level of energy exchange, heat production and voltage of rhythm regulation systems. Compensatory reallocation of adaptation resources occurred: adaptability of vegetative cardiac rhythm regulation mechanisms increased on the background of significant drop in the quality of aerobic ensure.
Key words: sanatorium treatment, adolescents, physical development.