Get Adobe Flash player


Authors: Ibrahim Alwan Kadhim Al-Ashour

Pages: 216-223



Myocardial infarction (MI) is the condition of irreversible necrosis of the heart muscle that is a result of prolonged ischemia. After World War II coronary heart disease (CHD) assumed epidemic proportions in western countries; nowadays, myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Thus this study is conducted to establish a data base for the factors contributing the incidence of MI in Al-Najaf city. 

The aim was to assess the myocardial infarction risk factors and to find out the differences between the patient and control groups regarding their age, BMI, B. sugar, smoking, gender, and biochemical parameters. 

Materials and methods. A case-control study was carried out in Al-Najaf Health Directorate; Al-Sadder Medical City, and Al-Hakeem General Hospitals from December 20, 2012 to April 1, 2013. A non-probability (purposive sample) of 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction was selected as the patient group, and 50 healthy adults composed the control group. The data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, which consisted of two parts: (1) socio-demographic data form that contained 5 items; (2) anthropometric and laboratory tests form that contained 5 items. The data were described statistically and analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures. 

Results. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between the patient and control groups regarding their age, BMI, blood sugar; smoking, gender, cholesterol; triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein. Exception was the family history for the study samples; the results showed that there was a non-significant difference between the patient and control groups. 

Conclusion and recommendations. Age and gender of patients are the common non-modifiable risk factors. While weight, blood sugar, smoking, lipid profile of patients are the common modifiable risk factors. The researchers recommend that further studies should involve more patients at the national level, which may make a massive change in health care services provided in order to decrease the effect of modifiable risk factors. Education programs for both health care members and community individuals should focus on decreasing the incidence of MI by reducing its modifiable risk factors.

Key words: ssessment, risk factors, myocardial infarction.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

The full text

To viev the full text



  1. Kanonidis EI. Myocardial infraction in elderly. Cardiology. 1998;183191.
  2. Stefa M. Cardiology Nursing. Edition G. Athens, 1998.
  3. Keil U. [The Worldwide WHO MONICA Project: results and perspectives]. Gesundheitswesen. 2005;67(1):38–45.
  4. Reddy K, Rao A, Reddy Th. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(2):98–103.
  5. Jamrozik K, Dobson A, Hobss M,McElduff P, Ring I, D’Este K, Crome M. Monitoring the incidence of cardiovascular disease in Australia. Cardiovascular diseaseNumber 17. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Publ., 2001. 94 p.
  6. Ivanusa M, Ivanusa Z. Risk factors and in-hospital outcomes in stroke and myocardial infarction patients. BMC Public Health. 2004;4:26. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-26
  7. Mozaffarian D, Fried LP, Burke GL, Fitzpatrick A, Siscovick DS. Lifestyles of older adults: can we influence cardiovascular risk in older adults? Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2004;13(3):153–60.
  8. Simons LA, Simons J, Friedlander Y, McCallum J. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly (The Dubbo study). Am J Cardiol. 2002;89(1):16
  9. Oliveira-Filho AD, Barreto-Filho JA, Neves SJ, Lyra Junior DP. Association between the 8- item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and blood pressure control. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012;99(1):649–58.
  10. Rastogi T, Reddy KS, Vaz M, Spiegelman D, Prabhakaran D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A. Diet and risk of ischemic heart disease in India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):582–92.
  11. Faisal AW, Ayub M, Waseem T, Khan RS, Hasnain SS. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2011;23(3):10–3.
  12. Saleem F, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awad AG, Bashir S. Association between knowledge and drug adherence in patients with hypertension in Quetta, Pakistan. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011;10(2):125–132.
  13. Aubeidia M. Assessment of myocardial infarction risk among patients in Nablus District. PhD dissertation. Palestine: An-Najah National University Publ., 2006.
  14. Mehta RH, Montoye CK, Faul J, Nagle DJ, Kure J, Raj E, Fattal P, Sharrif S, Amlani M, Changezi HU, Skorcz S, Bailey N, Bourque T, LaTarte M, McLean D, Savoy S, Werner P, Baker PL, DeFranco A, Eagle KA; American College of Cardiology Guidelines Applied in Practice Steering Committee. Enhancing quality of care for acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(12):2166–73.
  15. Sullivan M, LaCroix A, Russo J. Self-efficacy and self-reported functional status in coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1998:60:473–478.
  16. Marvaki C, Argyriou G, Karkouli G, Kossivas P, Marvaki A, Pilatis N, Polikandrioti M, Dimoula Y. The role of education on behavioral changes to modifiable risks factors after myocardial infarction. Health Science Journal. 2011;24(13):42–55.