Authors: Doroshenko A.M., Dybkova S.M., Rieznichenko L.S., Gruzina T.G., UlbergZ.R., Chekman I.S.
According to the WHO data, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most widespread pathological states as well as social problem. IDA is also one of the most important causes of intestinal dysbacteriosis. Varieties of oral iron preparations are widely prescribed as a part of medical care for patients with IDA. However, iron of existing oral antianemic drugs is not usually effectively absorbed. It may lead to elevation of intestinal iron content. The excess of iron in intestine can also result in dysbacteriosis. Moreover, existing antianemic drugs are not usually effective and safe. Thus, either IDA or oral iron supplementation may cause intestinal dysbacteriosis. Therefore, synthesis and development of new classes of biosafe and biocompatible antianemic drugs is an urgent task. Iron nanoparticles are promising in this direction. Due to high biological activity of iron nanoparticles, preclinical study of their effectiveness and safety for IDA treatment should include determining of their impact on intestinal microflora. The aim of this work was to study the influence of iron nanoparticles on intestinal microflora under conditions of oral administration to rats with IDA.
Substance of 40 nm sized spherical zero-valent iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) used in this study have been synthesized according to the original protocol of chemical condensation in water medium by iron (III) chloride reduction. We studied biological activity of FeNPs, as potential pharmacological substance with antianemic properties, on the model of IDA using Wistar female rats. IDA in experimental animals was modelled using iron deficiency diet. The experimental treatment course of rats with IDA included 10 days oral administration of FeNPs at/in therapeutic (12 mg/kg) dose. Commercial preparation based on pharmacological substance ferri (III) hydroxydi polymaltosum complexus was used as comparison drug in therapeutic dose. The status of microflora in lower part of rats’ gastrointestinal tract after experimental treatment course has been determined using standard microbiological protocols.
According to microbiological tests, rats fed with iron deficient diet demonstrated intestinal dysbiosis. In this case, there was a significant reduction of the protective microflora (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli). After 10 days of experimental treatment course (either with FeNPs or comparison drug), we observed normalization of quantitative parameters of protective and transient intestinal microorganisms in rats with IDA up to a level of healthy animals. However, recovery of number of sulphite-reductive clostridia in anemic animals’ gut, which had been receiving FeNPs, was more effective than in the case of comparison drug administration. FeNPs are possessed by favourable effect on the gastrointestinal tract microflora in case of IDA. Therefore, FeNPs are perspective as biosafe and biocompatible pharmacological substance for development of new class antianemic preparations.
Key words: iron nanoparticles, anemia, iron deficiency, dysbacteriosis, intestinal microflora, normalization.
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