Authors: Chemych M.D., Malysh N.H.
Salmonellosis and shigellosis are widespread intestinal diseases that bring significant economic blow. Polyetiology, a variety of modes of transmission, universal susceptibility, lack of persistent post-infectious immunity are factors that hinder efficiency of undertaken measures to reduce morbidity.
We concluded a retrospective analysis of the incidence (2003–2012) to study the epidemic process of shigellosis and salmonellosis in Sumy region; and defined etiological structure. Besides, certain species of Salmonella were isolated from pathological material of animals and investigated. We employed the descriptive and analytical epidemiological research methods. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the application package «Statistics for Windows», version 8.0. The incidence rate, dynamics of morbidity trends, Spearman coefficient correlation, and the coefficient of reliability were determined with statistical significance (p < 0.05).
Nowadays there is a pronounced tendency to decrease the incidence of shigellosis and moderate growth trend incidence of salmonellosis in Sumy region. In the etiological structure of shigellosis and salmonellosis, S. sonnei (p < 0.05) and S. enteritidis (p < 0.05), are the most prevalent. Risk factors for shigellosis prevalence are contaminated drinking milk, dairy and cooked products. We point out strong to medium direct correlations between isolation frequency of samples, which do not meet sanitary-bacteriological standards, morbidity and the annual dynamics of shigellosis. The incidence of salmonellosis in the population corresponds to the epizootic situation. There is a significant direct correlation between the isolation frequency of S. typhimurium from pathological animal material and the pathogen from clinical material of patients. Neutralizing effect on food processing path should be the basis to prevent from shigellosis and salmonellosis nowadays. Considering importance of the housing conditions for animals in the epidemiology of salmonellosis, so preventive measures must be taken at the basic level of food processing chain; we should use high quality raw materials and meet technological transportation, storage and cooking requirements.
Key words shigellosis, salmonellosis, incidence rate, etiological structure, prevalence.